Although I had been vaguely aware of "E-Bird" (http://ebird.org) for some time until late in 2017 I hadn't really appreciated its usefulness. Once I did so I realised that adding references to that resource would greatly enhance my birding guide. However, realisation and actually doing something about it are two different things! Unfortunately, a series of domestic events forced me to put the idea on the 'back burner' for six months or more so I returned to it only in late April of this year. Even so, the process of incorporating the information from E-bird took a lot longer than I had hoped (with external factors again hampering progress). In addition to adding links to E-bird for those sites that this resource covers, I have also added links to relevant posts on my blog. This seemed to be the only way I could give readers access to photos of some of the sites mentioned in my guide (although my plans to cover the principle sites with photos and a more discursive account has had to be postponed until I can return to Spain regularly). It also draws attention to my discussion of various points of interest - tricky bird ID (e.g. larks & swifts), particular species of bird (e.g. Bald Ibis), the historical context (both ornithologically and in general), expand on points made in my introduction and a number of book reviews.
So how and why can E-bird be so useful? Well, it allows you to generate useful checklists for whatever region you're visiting. Hence a few taps on the keyboard allows you to discover that Spain as a whole has a checklist of 589 bird species of which Andalucia has 424 species (the highest total for all Spanish provinces), 346 species have been reported on E-bird from Cadiz "county", a figure exceeded only by Malaga with 355. (Note: the raw figures generated for provinces and individual sites appear to include undetermined species pairs and escapees which inflates the totals but this is countered by the omission of those extreme rarities not reported to E-Bird. However they should still be useful for comparative purposes). It also gives information on species reported for individual sites with, for example, 233 species being reported from the Canal principal area of La Janda (and, I note, another 11 checklists submitted since May when I originally wrote my notes!). From the data available you can also generate useful bar charts not only of any of the above regions but also specific sites. In additions to indicating temporal presence, these bar charts give you an idea of frequency (from rare to widespread). Naturally, how accurate these are depends rather on how many checklists have been submitted so only really works well for larger regions and frequently visited locations. You can also hone your search down to look at a specific time frame. Fortunately, each for each 'hot spot' the total number of submitted lists is given allowing you to make a reasonable judgement about how accurate they might be. From my perspective, it saves the drudgery of composing a more detailed species/seasonal occurrence list for each site (and it's not difficult to extrapolate from well-known locations to similar areas nearby). You can also generate data on particular species (including a map). This is hugely useful if you want to find your 'target birds'. It's not perfect and information remains patchy and should be used with some caution but it's a huge advance and one to be nurtured and valued. Note that the details (number of checklists & species) given in my guide are accurate only up to May 2018 so you'll find some discrepancies between the quoted and current figures given but should still be adequate to give the reader a good idea of what to expect. (Note - E-bird was developed by Cornell Lab of Ornithology in the USA so American bird names are used - loon, jaeger, etc - but this shouldn't cause much of a problem).
The most important element, though, is not what E-bird can do for you but what you can do for E-bird and, by extension, the wider birding community. Accordingly, I urge all birders to submit their checklists so that the resource can grow both in size and functionality. Here in the UK we are fortunate to have a long established network of county bird societies to provide information but this is not (yet) the case in Spain (and elsewhere). In many, but not all, respects E-bird can fill this gap. Going through old notebooks is tedious and easy to put off as I well know since I still have much of my own checklists to submit ..... when I discover where the hell I've squirrelled away most of my notebooks ... but it's well worth it!
Addendum - since publishing this post I've had a typically encouraging and helpful message from Yeray Seminario who reminds me that when he, Javi Elorriaga and Miguel Gonzalez started collaborating with the E-bird about five years ago, they were amongst the first to really engage with this project in Spain. I've not had the pleasure of meeting Miguel but Yeray and Javi are two of the finest birders in not only in the province but in Spain. We are extraordinarily fortunate in Cadiz province to have two such experts supervising the input to this scheme. Fortunately, for hopeless monoglots like me, they are both fluent English speakers and very helpful too. As noted above, they and Miguel were three of the first reviewers involved in Spain but numbers have now swelled to 50 odd. It is they who review information to ensure any errors are picked up and weeded out making the resource as reliable as possible. As Yeray observed, the quality of the data is constantly improving whilst its volume is growing exponentially. This means that researchers and conservationists are already putting all this data to good use. The importance and potential of this project simply cannot be understated!
These points aside, the only area whose coverage I've revised to any great degree is in the Bahía de Cádiz. Changes to my coverage of the San Fernando Marshes (NW 15) - mainly an improved map and better directions - have been set out in my previous blog. However, I have also added an entirely new site the Marisma de las Aletas (NW 14.4) entirely derived from E-bird which, thankfully, I could add to a redrawn map of the Los Turunos area (Map 23). This is based on a couple of checklists submitted to E-bird by Rafael Garcia (see https://ebird.org/hotspot/L5561089). I don't know Rafael but I hope he doesn't mind my using the information he kindly put in the public domain and thank him for his efforts. Surrounded by busy trunk roads, this site will never be a huge draw but it does allow another point of access to the habitat in the bay of Cadiz and seemingly attracts sought-after birds such as Slender-billed Gull and an excellent opportunity to get to grips with lark identification as Greater & Lesser Short-toed, Crested & Thekla Lark and, in winter, Skylark can be found there. Since I've not been there as yet my directions are necessarily tentative so any feedback would be welcome.
I'm acutely aware that of all the areas described in my birding notes, I know the Bahia de Cadiz least well. This is partly because exploring them usually requires a drive along busy suburban roads and partly because other sites are more conveniently explored from my base in Alcala de los Gazules. Another consideration is that the most significant birding experience of the area (large numbers of waders) largely involves species familiar to UK birders. They do hold more exotic species (Audouin's Gull, Caspian Tern, Kentish Plover, etc) but these are just as easily found in the Bonanza area or Barbate (which also tend to have more exotic birds and, in the case of the former, offer better views of waders). I had intended to explore the area more fully but, with circumstances dictating that I've not been able to get out to Cadiz province for the last three years, such plans remain "on the back burner". Accordingly, I depend more than ever on correspondents and users of my site guide to update me on corrections/changes. Disappointingly, I never hear back from most of those who use my notes presumably (or should that be hopefully?) because they don't encounter any problems with them. Thankfully a handful are regular correspondents one of whom, Alf King, has kindly pointed out some errors in my description of San Fernando marshes.
Armed with this new information I have fully revised my notes and redrawn my map of the area (see above). Despite several sources (inc Wikiloc on GoogleEarth) indicating that the sendero at the Tres Amigos saltpans offered an 8 km circular route, this is not the case and visitors have to content themselves with a 3 km route (a) that loops around part of the site. In the process of revision I also noticed that the northern 'arm' of the Tres Amigos sendero appears to be accessible off the CA 33 (f). Google Street View shows cars pulled off here by derelict buildings by the 6 km marker but great caution is needed if turning off and back on here (only possible as you head towards San Fernando) as this is a very busy road. Not having explored it personally I'm unsure about access details so use at your own risk! I have also revised access details in general. Alf also tells me that the board walk along Punta del Boqueron (c) was badly damaged by tidal surges in early 2018 so access might be limited until it is repaired.
Addendum - on reading the above the ever helpful Alf King reminds me that the Visitors' Centre here has maps and leaflets about the area including one that shows the 'northern arm' of the Tres Amigos sendero as being legitimately accessible. He also tells me that the principal interest here isn’t ornithological but historical as the site has a late 13th century flour mill powered by the rising and falling tides. This was one of a network of hundreds of such mills stretching from Faro to Cadiz Bay and they were the main means of milling in that period.
Having revised access to and details of NW 15, I also took the opportunity to revise my notes on the following site (NW 16). Little needed to be changed for NW 16.1, 16.3 & 16.4 but NW 16.2 was more tricky. First, though, those curious about what facilities are available at NW16.1 (particularly if you have some Spanish) might like to view this short video on the site (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tm6MuJjCSPo).
On paper at least, NW 16.2 has good potential but access is problematical and I've not been able to check in person. Only one of the three suggested walks (Collejon del Mollino) is featured in the “300 senderos” booklet (https://issuu.com/cadizturismo/docs/300senderoscadiz/1?ff=true&e=3220287/1858612), the others being derived from a search of GoogleEarth. This suggest that access may not be straight forward. The 6 km walk through Salina de San Ramón y la Pastorita (b) takes you to the main channel and should allow good views across of the centre of the marshes. In all likelihood you’ll see few birds you won’t find at the more convenient NW 16.1 (which also has the advantage of offering refreshment and a panorama across the salinas from a covered viewpoint) but may interest the adventurous. About 500m further along the Calle Molinos another sendero, Collejon del Molino (c) - Walk 167 in the “300 senderos" booklet - also promises a route into the salinas (but is not shown on GoogleEarth). The wild card here is the Coto de la Isleta, a wooded island in the centre of the marshes, which should be an interesting destination but access is open to doubt. “Wikiloc” shows a sendero linking it to the village of La Coquina (d). However, a close look at GoogleEarth seems to show that the causeway connecting the island to the village has been breached and therefore that the island is inaccessible. I've left it in just in case foot bridges have or may yet be constructed. Even so it may still be worth exploring this area as some roads/tracks may offer good views over the marshes/salinas. Another option for the adventurous....
I've tried to drive through Los Gallos to (e) several times but the maze of narrow one-way streets in the urbanisation are such that I've got lost every time! I've revised my directions to take what seems a longer, but should be quicker route (as you're less likely to get lost!), via the suitably named Calle Carboneres, which involves only two turns and no one way routes! Essentially, you head north on the Avenida de la Diputacion and when you've negotiated roundabout betwixt the Mercadona and Lidl supermarkets the left-hand turning into Calle Carbonares is another 650 m (although it may be easier to continue a further 150m to a roundabout and return the way you came to make it an easier right-hand turn). Follow this road almost until its end (c1 km) and then turn left and shortly afterwards right into the Calle Codorniz where you can pull off onto rough ground and explore the sendero. Access via (f) is much less complicated since the white 'Puerta de Carboneros' makes the start of the sendero obvious whilst parking in a nearby side road is convenient. You can even reach this starting point by bus (routes L8 & L11).
Alf has also pointed out that many of the information boards that dot many sites listed in my guide now boast QR codes which helpfully allow you to download information onto your mobile phone.
Whilst there's no doubt that the raptor migration across the straits is the 'jewel in the crown' of Cadiz birding, that doesn't mean it's sensible to concentrate solely on the jewel and forget the crown! Yet that often seems to be what many visitors seem todo and, by ignoring the delights available elsewhere in the province, they are really missing out on some terrific birding. Personally, I've found that having a base in Alcala de los Gazules (i.e. in the centre of the province) maximises flexible birding options since most birding hotspots are within an hour's drive (and some a good deal less). The downside is that by not being at the focus of bird migration, the Straits, I can't step out of my door and witness the really impressive streams of raptors that you get on the coast (although I see enough to satisfy most!) Then again, being based near Tarifa means up to a two hours drive to reach some key sites for rare or scarce species. My solution isn't the only one and there's much to be said for splitting your visit between two bases, one on the Straits and the other near the marshes of the Guadalquivir (and other wetlands and birding sites). The problem has been that there's been no really "birder friendly" accommodation in the Sanlucar area where it's really needed ….. until now!
It gives me great pleasure to be able to warmly recommend El Martinete Guest House (http://www.martinete.eu) near Trebujena. Not only is it in a pleasant location with superb views across the Guadalquivir but it's also under the care and direction of Juan Martín Bermúdez. That he's a highly expert and knowledgeable birder (and former Director of the Coto Ornithological Donana station) would alone be recommendation enough but he's also a fluent English speaker, the author of several wildlife guides, founder of the innovative Salarte project (see www.salarte.org) and a thoroughly pleasant chap. Casa Martinete itself is a charming well equipped three bedroom villa ideally situated to explore the lower Guadalquivir. It's a great base from which to 'do your own thing' but if you need expert guidance then Juan Martin is available as your mentor and guide (the "Wildlife Experiences" bit on their logo). I know that admitting that there's more to life than birds is a cardinal sin for some but staying here also allows you to explore the magical cultural and gastronomic delights of the Jerez area. If like me, you're a lover of history and good sherry (there's no other kind!), as well as birds, then there's nowhere better to explore. When you half close your eyes and squint at that fabulous view across the lower Guadalquivir, you can almost see a galley pulling towards Tartessus, the near-mythical and certainly mysterious harbour city that was once here (which was quite possibly the model for Atlantis).
Being based here means that the excellent birdwatching to be had along the Guadalquivir between Trebujena and Bonanza is only a few minutes away. Birding along this stretch of river ending up at Algaida Pinewoods and Bonanza saltpans (c40 mins drive … if you don't stop to look at the birds!) is one of my favourite birding routes in Cadiz province. It offers the chance of scarce and local species like Marbled Teal, White-headed Duck, Pin-tailed Sandgrouse, Lesser Short-toed Lark and Azure-winged Magpie (the only site in the province but often very difficult!) not found near Tarifa plus delights like Flamingos, Collared Pratincoles and much else. Bonanza saltpans are also probably the best site in the region for photographing waders.
The other bonus of being based here is that access to several other excellent birding sites is much more convenient than from Tarifa; Mesas de Asta Marsh (Spain's largest Gull-billed Tern colony) is 15 mins away, Chipiona area (regular rarities & Little Swift) 40 mins, Laguna de Tollos (an exciting newly restored wetland) 40 mins and Brazo del Este (wetland birds and exotics) less than an hour. The drive along the Carr. de Práctico beside the river Guadalquivir north from Trebujena to Brazo del Este is little known but a wonderfully shady excursion on a bright sunny day with plenty of pleasant spots for a picnic and even more marshy margins for birds. On this route at La Señuela, the old church provides a most picturesque site for nesting White Storks. Brazo del Este is a key site for waders, Marbled Teal, small crakes, Savi's Warbler, Black-headed Weaver and other exotics. Even Osuna, the best place in western Andalucia for Black-bellied Sandgrouse, Great and Little Bustards, is only a manageable 90 minutes. Grazalema (Black Wheatears, Rock Sparrow, Bonelli's Eagle, Alpine Accentor, etc) is also only 90 minutes or so. For all of these localities, you have to add at least 60-90 mins travelling time to reach them from the Tarifa area which makes a trip to them more of an expedition than a jaunt. Not that you miss out entirely on raptor migration if based further north in the province since, whilst you may not see the impressive streams of migrating birds you get along the straits, the same species often use the Guadalquivir as a flyway so you can catch up with all the species (except Ruppell's Vulture and Bonelli's Eagle) that you can expect around Tarifa. Besides, if conditions are looking good for a serious passage across the Straits then it's only 90 minutes or so away and Juan Martin will surely tip you off when it's a good time to give it a go.
So if you're planning a birding trip to Cadiz province – and why wouldn't you? - remember that you don't have to follow the herd down to Tarifa and that you can have a wonderful and equally memorable time exploring the lower Guadalquivir and nearby sites. You'll probably return home with a longer list of birds – not to mention other species – than if you'd been based around Tarifa. Better still, if you're a tyro birdwatcher then you can avail yourself of the services of an authoritative and knowledgeable guide.
As I've reported elsewhere on this blog (see - http://birdingcadizprovince.weebly.com/cadiz-birding-blog-page/ojen-valley-access-denied) despite being used by birders for decades the Ojen Valley road is no longer open to vehicles although you can still walk or cycle along the 16km track. This, however, is not a practical proposition for most visiting birders who neither have a bicycle nor the resources to be picked up at the far end of the walk. The site is still noted in Cadiz Tourismo's recent 'Birding Cadiz' booklet (yes, they nicked my title) with the warning that “You need special permission to access the road with a vehicle” but, with a genius so often typical of such publications, doesn't tell you either to whom to apply or the criteria the authorities use to grant permission! What seems like a no-brainer to me evidently isn't so evident to them.
I'm very grateful, therefore, to Fraser Simpson (a regular visitor to the area) for the following information. Apparently you need to submit a form entitled “Modelo Petición de Autorizaciones Actividades de uso Público, Turismo Rural y Turismo Activo” which is available fro the Natural Parks section of the Junta de Andalucia. This form also seems to be available online at http://www.famp.es/famp/intranet/documentos/rio_palmones/9.%20Modelo%20solicitud%20autorizacion%20actividades%20UP.pdf (although this example refers to the Rio Palmones in the webaddress, I think that it's a standard form). I have also reproduced it at the end of this post but I suggest people check online rather than rely on the forms reporduced here. Applicants must send the signed and completed form by e-mail to email@example.com addressed to the Director Conservador del Parque Natural Park. Those with good Spanish could try phoning the park headquarters on +34 856 58 75 08 856587508 or write a letter to Parque Natural de los Alcornocales, 11180 Alcalá de los Gazules, Cádiz, Spain. It might also be worth calling at the offices of the Parque Alcornocales in person (it's situated just off the A 381 next to the information centre on the Benalup road below Alcalá de los Gazules). I've had dealing with the staff when they were located in Alcalá and found them to be pleasant and helpful (although having only limited English). Fraser's permit was for a week and was granted without charge. However, he was visiting with group of university students and has been studying a site in the Ojen valley for some years so may have been at an advantage compared to 'ordinary' birders.
Since I've mentioned him here, I'll also take the opportunity to strontgly recommend Fraser's superbly illustrated, detailed and very useful website. His trip report on his visit in spring 2017 (one of about a dozen on this area based at Zahara de los Atunes) which is well worth browsing (see - http://www.fssbirding.org.uk/costadelaluz2017trip.htm. His notes include sonograms, excellent sketch maps and a comprehensive species list.
Well into the twentieth century, the view persisted in Spain (and elsewhere), that marshes, lagoons and wetlands were, at best, unproductive spaces and, at worst, a reservoir for disease. Hence there was little or no opposition to draining them to convert them into farmland or using them as convenient places to dump waste (particularly from the sugar refining industry). Most notoriously, this attitude caused the loss of the iconic lake that was the Laguna de la Janda but what is less widely appreciated is that many other small, but valuable, lagunas were also lost during this period. Even the much celebrated Laguna de Medina was not immune and came perilously close to being converted into a reservoir in the mid 1950s. Perhaps, by persisting into the 1980s or even later, this negative attitude towards the environment lasted longer in Spain than elsewhere (particularly amongst politicians) but there are promising signs that the early decades of this century things have changed. Not that, as current threats to the Coto Donana and the sad tale of Laguna de Torrox (see below), remind us, there's any reason to be complacent but there are straws in the wind that wider societal attitudes are changing.
Several recent environmental projects in the province give cause to hope that in Spain there's now a greater regard for the environment and the importance of protecting unique environments than in the recent past. In large part, this change can be ascribed to pressure from goups like Ecologistas en Acción (Ecologists in Action). This confederation of over 300 groups, formed in 1998, is particularly strong in Andalucia which has over 100 groups. Exactly how far pressure from these groups has changed the political landscape is difficult to judge but there's no doubt that parading your 'ecological credentials' is now seen as excellent PR for large companies in a way which would have been quite alien a decade or two ago. To some extent, of course, legislation to protect the environment (and calls for more stringent laws) has forced their hand of large companies too. I've already written at length about the restoration of the Laguna de los Tollos (see here) but two further projects in the Jerez area give cause for cautious hope.
The first and by far the most significant is the transformation of the Marismas de Mesas de Asta (also called Haza de la Torre) just north of the city (see also my previous blog about this site here). Evidently, partly due to changes in EU rules (, the sugar factory at Guadalcacín factory (Cádiz) was forced to close in 2007. This meant that the 36 hectares (or 48 hectares in some accounts) then used as 'settling ponds' by the factory at Mesas de Asta were no longer needed. Although constructed on what was then agricultural land, this area had previously been a marshy arm of the Guadalquivir Estuary. Even before the facility closed, a colony of Collared Pratincole tried to establish itself in the area (2002) but productivity was limited by the presence of many rats and semi-feral dogs. So, instead of restoring farmland, it was decided to recreate the original marshland (although the cynic in me wonders whether this option might have been cheaper too!) The result has been little short of astonishing. The number of breeding pairs of birds has shot up from 99 in 2005 to 1,485 in 2011 after creation of the wetland and wintering birds in the same period rose from 1,243 to 4,912. The wetlands are now a significant site for wetland birds not merely for Cádiz but for the whole of Andalucia. Significant breeding species include Gull-billed Tern (1,000+ pairs, one of the largest colonies in Europe) and Slender-billed Gull (450 pairs, 40% of the Andalucian population) plus good populations of Avocet (250 pairs) and Black-winged Stilt (50 pairs). It is also a significant site for Marbled Teal. Less significant for conservation, but also of interest to birders, the site also attracts Marsh Harriers, Montagu's Harrier, Kentish Plover, Lapwing and a wide range of passing migrants – Osprey, Wood Sandpiper, Black-tailed Godwits, etc.
Having been achieved for the relatively modest sum of €1.5 million (€1.25 from Ebro Foods, who operated the facility, and the rest from local authorities) this must be regarded as money well spent. Not surprisingly, both the tourist boards for Jerez and Cádiz Province have started promoting this as a site for ornithological tourism. So far, so good. Unfortunately, despite being well promoted, in April 2017 visiting British birders were asked to leave the area (albeit very politely). The site of the former settling ponds have always been clearly fenced off but previously I and many others have been able to access the edge of the small lagoon here by following a clearly marked track (tricky to drive but easy to walk along) in the past. However, according a press report in 2013 ”The property, although private, is visitable upon request to the owners” (although it's not clear whether this applies to the whole area or just those parts north of the track beyond the padlocked gate). Naturally, despite searching the internet and asking local contacts, I've been unable to discover how access may legitimately be obtained since it's nowhere clear who it is you need to contact (an email to Ebro Foods went unanswered). Fortunately, all of the larger, more interesting species can be seen and identified (although a scope helps) if you park off the road near the locked gate and scan the area without walking to the lagoon. However, there's no doubt that for many smaller species (warblers, small waders, etc) this is entirely unsatisfactory. If the authorities are serious about promoting this superb site to birding tourists, then the situation must be clarified, access regularised and basic facilities provided. A couple of information boards and a viewing screen would be a cheap and quick solution for the small lagoon. Access to the larger wetland beyond the locked gate where the terns and gulls breed is more problematical but experience at Rye Harbour in Sussex (UK) shows that an active gull/tern colony can co-exist with managed low level tourism. Properly managed, this site could rapidly become very popular with visiting birdwatchers.
The second, much smaller, restoration is currently underway at Laguna de las Quinientas which is on the far side of the E-5 (AP-4) c3.5 km NW of Laguna de Medina. When I first returned to Andalucia a decade or so ago, I had distinct feelings of deja vu as I searched fruitlessly for this laguna (which was mentioned in my old copy of “Where to Watch Birds in Southern and Western Spain”). Over thirty years earlier, we had similar problems trying to find Laguna de La Janda which, sadly, was then still marked on our large scale road map. Not locating the Laguna de las Quinientas was equally excusable not merely because it's only 12 hectares in size but also since by that time it, like Mesas de Asta marsh, was a victim of the sugar industry having been used as a settling pond for a nearby sugar beet factory. This was particularly tragic as the site had previously been home to 17 species of bird including endangered species such as Crested Coot, White-headed Duck and Marbled Teal. To make matters worse, from the 1980s onwards the toxic sludge caused extraordinarily high wildfowl mortality figures (over two thousand birds alone in 2005 - 2011). Not surprisingly, this attracted the attention of Ecologistas en Acción. After some public pressure, in 2011 the sugar company changed its production methods so that only a three years later waterfowl mortality was reduced to zero. However, thanks to a build up of sludge the maximum depth of the laguna had been reduced to half a metre, instead of three, which meant it was far more prone to drying out. The remedial work required to remedy this by removing the sludge was funded, to the tune of €42,035, by the Ministry of Environment and is already proving beneficial. As yet, though, the vegetation has yet to grow to the extent that it can support its former range and number of birds.However, water polluted by agri-chemicals running into the laguna from nearby fields remains a problem. Partly in order to monitor this site, the Ecologistas en Acción have suggested that, when restored, the laguna should be accessible to the public (in part, this reflects current concerns that several lagunas in the province on private land may be being neglected) . Access shouldn't be an unsurmountable problem as there's a rough track running c1.5 km north to the site from just after where the CA 3109 goes under the E-5 just beyond the cement works.
Access, as long as it's controlled (which might be the rub in cash strapped Spain) and directed where necessary, should be no bolt-on afterthought since it is vital to involve the public in these schemes. At one level this is simply a matter of fairness where money from the public purse is involved but it's also a practical measure since it should allow easier monitoring and to impart a 'sense of ownership', both of which help to prevent further abuses from occuring. Rather than simply using such projects as a prop for companies to appear 'green', by exploiting ornithological tourism and promoting environmental education these sites have both a tangible and intangible 'value'. In this, the fate of the Laguna de Torrox serves as a pertinent warning. This small laguna on the outskirts of Jerez was once the haunt of Abel Chapman & Walter Buck (authors of the seminal Victorian book 'Wild Spain') has now been swallowed up a decade or so ago by a housing development and made into a 'feature'. However, the attractive lagoon encircled by a pleasant 'passeo' that the developers doubtless promoted, has become an enivironmental nightmare with polluted waters, dying fish and dumped rubbish. Perhaps it was simply too close to Jerez to be saved from urban sprawl but a more sympathetic approach preserving it as real 'green lung' may have saved it and given the city a real asset.
Whilst recent developments as described here are hugely encouraging, any optimism should also be tempered by the fact that even a well know site like Laguna de Medina continues to suffer from the unintentional introduction of carp which have catastrophically disrupted the laguna's ecology to the disadvantage of nationally important bird species. This happened following extensive floods and the worry is that, even if the authorities remove the carp (as they did after a previous invasion), until the source of the fish is removed this could happen again. Elsewhere a lack of regular maintenance or real engagement with ornithological tourism is obvious. A number of sites could benefit from relatively simple (and not ruinously expensive) measures which could greatly help visitor accessibility (although as a foreigner I'm probably unaware of many of the problems - political, financial and practical - that prevent this). Perhaps, reflecting the availability of resources, the authorities seem better at providing glossy booklets and attending the UK Bird Fair (where the Andalucia stand is one of the largest and most generously manned) than taking practical steps. Further, whereas in the UK the statutary conservation bodies (Natural England et al) have embraced encouraging visitors, there sometimes seems to be more of a "them and us" attitude (as there once was in the UK) by the authorities in Spain. That's not to disparage the good work that's being done, the many great people working hard to improve things or the progress that has been made, but, in my impatience, at times it seems the authorities' lefthand has no idea what its righthand is doing.
Books & booklets:
A series of articles on the excellent website www.entornoajerez.com/ about lagunas around Jerez are invaluable not least because they can be translated using the 'Google Translate' service. If your Spanish is up to it then download the excellent online booklet which collects these notes together at https://issuu.com/entornoajerez/docs/humedales .
Wild Spain by Abel Chapman & Walter Buck - https://archive.org/details/wildspainrecords00chaprich
Ecologists in Action:
I've just finished editing my usual spring update of my birding notes on the province. Very few changes mainly concerning revamping the section on bird guides, adding a couple of websites and suggested places to stay (more on which anon) plus trying to correct some formatting issues. As always send me a message via the contact form if you'd like a copy and I'll email them to you. They're free but a donation to a wildlife charity RSPB, SEO, etc but especially the Salarte project - birdingcadizprovince.weebly.com/cadiz-birding-blog-page/salarte-project) would be very welcome. Any suggestions, corrections or updates are always welcome.
Birds of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East – A Photographic Guide by Frédéric Jiguet & Aurélien Audevard | Translated by Tony Williams | Princeton Universtiy Press | Paperback | Feb 2017 | 447 Pages | colour distribution maps | 2,200 Colour Photographs | ISBN: 9780691172439 | £24.95 (but available online for less)
Since the advent of the authoritative and superbly illustrated 'Collins Bird Guide' in 1999, some may question whether there's any need for a new field guide on the birds of Europe (plus North Africa and the Middle East) at all. However, canny publishers have spotted that there is still a niche for guides that can offer something different such as using photographs rather than artwork or focussing on a more limited area. 'Britain's Birds' (Wildguides) combined both approaches by using photos and restricting the geographical range. Now a new photographic guide purporting to cover the same area as the 'Collins Bird Guide' has entered the fray - the. Birds of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East by Frédéric Jiguet & Aurélien Audevard. So how does it shape up?
Unfortunately, the English title of this guide is misleading since many North African and Middle Eastern species are not included. In North-west Africa alone a dozen species are missing (e.g. Dark Chanting Goshawk, a couple of sandgrouse, Levaillant's Woodpecker, a trio of larks and a brace of wheatars) and there must be two or three times more left out elsewhere. The original French title (and that of other translations) -“Tous les Oiseaux d'Europe” - gives the game away. This book covers all species recorded in Europe and birds from the wider region only scrape in as vagrants to Europe. You need to peruse the species texts to realise that their definition of 'Europe' includes Cyprus, Lesbos and the 'European' Atlantic islands although the eastern border is irritatingly left undefined. Surprisingly, Pharaoh Owl is included as it's claimed that it “could potentially colonise southern Spain” which seems optimistic given that it's never been recorded there. Remarkably, by describing and illustrating all vagrants the final species total is 860 which is substantially more than the Collins Guide (715 fully treated plus c90 vagrants and escapees covered briefly).
The new guide promises the reader a creditable 2,200 photos although by encompassing so many species this means an average of only 2.5 photos per bird. In comparison, the Collins Guide, which is almost exactly the same size and with the same number of pages, has an average of 4 illustrations per species. The Wildguides book, which covers over 260 fewer species has a larger format and over a hundred more pages, manages an average of 5.4 photos per species. So although a generous provision, it is inevitable that this book shows fewer plumages and fewer birds in flight. These omissions sometimes can make a difference between identifying a bird or not; the lack of any flight shots of either merganser is but one example of this. The photos are of a good standard but some of the wildfowl look like capitive birds as they seem to be pinioned ...
After a good, albeit somewhat brief introduction, the book gets down to business with over 420 pages of photos and descriptions. Both the illustrations and text share the same page with, where appropriate, a map. The photos are well annotated with useful comments on key ID features. The photographs have been “photo-shopped” so that most background has been “tippexed” out with only a ghosted disc remaining round the bird (or part thereof). The photographs themselves are generally of a good quality although some are a little small making details hard to discern. As a general rule, the images tend to be larger than those in the Collins Guide (but 30%-50% smaller than those in Wildguides' 'Britain's Birds'). However, painted plates of birds in identical poses, without distracting shadows and carefully delineated to highlight key points mean that it can be harder to distinguish detail in photos than paintings of the same (or even smaller) size.
More often than not two species are covered per page but quite a few are squeezed in three and a fewer still four to a page (esp. Nearctic vagrant passerines). Another sixty odd species, often (but not always) those with several distinct subspecies or a complex range of plumages have a page or more to luxuriate in. So it's not a surprise to find species with very variable plumages – buzzards, eagles, some harriers, all larger gulls, and so on have a page or more to themselves. Predictably, Yellow Wagtail comes off best with no less than three pages – generous perhaps but it's good to see those familiar green, grey or black heads attached to a body for once! Rare shrikes in the old Isabelline complex are particularly well treated. Yet such generous full page coverage is also enjoyed by far less variable species like Pheasant, Brown Booby, Starling, Waxwing and Pine Grosbeak. Whatever the criteria used to determine the space allowed for each species, the criteria seem haphazardly applied as Common Redpoll (a variable species with several races) only gets half a page. Some fairly common species too get shorter shrift than one might expect (e.g. one photo of Woodcock compared to two for Pin-tailed Snipe).
What distinguishes this guide from any of its rivals is that, as the original title suggests, it really does include all the birds found in Europe. Although rarities are often treated in less detail (in text and photos) in some cases, the level of detail and illustration even exceeds that used for common and widespread European species. It is particularly strong on its coverage of different races some of which have half a page to themselves (on the downside in a number of cases this extra coverage is several pages adrift from the main text and not always well cross referenced). The outstanding example being “Ambiguous Reed Warbler” a very recent (and still controversial) race of European Reed Warbler found in North African and Spain (which may even be a race of African Reed Warbler). Oddly, though, redpolls are less well treated than one might expect. Naturally, some of the larger gulls have all of their various races depicted and described (although not always to the level really needed since that would require a couple of pages at least. On the other hand coverage of stonechats and 'Isabelline/Brown/Red-tailed Shrikes, for example, is better than one might expect. Even so, there are times (e.g. depicting wheatear tails) when it cries out for a couple of comparative, even diagramatic. illustrations rather than photos ('Britain's Birds' is far more pragmatic in this respect).
Vagrants include species recorded at least as recently as October 2015 and those with only one or two records. It's a pity that the relative rarity wasn't more clearly expressed or indeed, given most copies will be bought in the UK, it hasn't got a simple key to UK status (as per the old Heinzel guide). Whilst in many ways this inclusiveness is welcome, it does to some degree compromise the coverage of commoner species that birdwatchers are far more likely to see. My personal choice would have been to drop the extreme vagrants with only a handful of European records to improve coverage of birds which observers have a real chance of finding for themselves. In some ways, it is a surprise that this strategy hasn't been used since the authors (and the original publisher) have already produced a very similar guide devoted entirely to European rarities ('Tous les Oiseaux rares d'Europe' which coveres 456 species in 365 pages & 1850 photos) At the very least I would rather have rarities were consigned to an appendix to minimise confusion like to old 'Shell Guide').
Another area where this guide excels is with regard to introduced species. We have illustrations and text not only for widespread feral species like Ring-necked Parakeet but also less familiar (and more restricted ones) like Vinous-throated Parrotbill and Erkel's Francolin. Spanish based birders will welcome the inclusion of Black-headed Weaver and Yellow-crowned Bishop even if the text suggests they're restricted to Portugal (the former and to a lesser degree the latter are increasingly found in several sites in western Andalucia). Conversely, the Red Avadavat's range is given only as 'Spain' whereas it's also found widely (if thinly) in Portugal. Strangely, though, the distinctive red male is not illustrated only the duller female (although the sex isn't given on the photo). Inevitably, some species with feral populations are omitted (e.g. several parrot species regularly found in Spain) but the authors deserve great credit for including as many as they have.
The text is rather brief often having fewer than half the number of words than the descriptions found in the Collins Guide. Unlike that book, it also fails to highlight key points in italic or bold (which improves functionality). Even though the text is usefully supplemented by annotations around the photographs, the text is not always sufficiently thorough as some useful identification features have been not been mentioned (e.g. the white underwing of adult male Lesser Kestrel). Vocalisations are also treated somewhat briefly with many species lacking any description of their song. Some descriptions are even misleading such as noting that the Iberian Chiffchaff's call is 'similar' to Willow Warbler whereas its Reed Bunting like down slurred call is diagnostic. That said, although brief, the text in conjunction with the photographs should allow you to identify most of the birds you see although inadequate to identify some very similar species or some female/juveniles birds (some not all being described let alone illustrated).
The three colour maps show breeding, resident and winter ranges (but not occurrence on passage). They are invariably small (being a little smaller than those in the Collins Guide) and seem a little more generalised than the maps in that guide. Even so, they generally provide a useful 'broad-brush' guide to distribution. In some cases, though, the status of some species is very optimistic! Fortunately, the book follows the same familiar taxonomic order as used in the Collins Guide rather than the new scientifically rigorous but very impractical new order some books have opted for.
Taken together the illustrations and text make this book more functional than most photoguides. Although including extraordinarily rare birds it weems more aimed at the beginner/intermediate birder than wannabe expert as crucial details (and photos) are omitted. However, although I have a number of reservations, the whole somehow transcends my caveats to be by far the best photoguide to European birds on the market. It certainly doesn't replace the Collins Guide but complements it particularly if you want photos of all European species in one handy package. In this context, it's well worth buying. Surprisingly, perhaps, it's nearest rival photoguide is WildGuides' 'Britain's Birds' which covers Europe as well as this guide covers North Africa and the Middle East! 'Britain's Birds' is by far the better book as it has many more photos, more comprehensive coverage of plumages and birds in flight, much larger images, a far better thought out text and a flexible design. However, it has the serious drawback of being not only significantly larger and heavier but also only covers the c600 species recorded in Britain. Essentially you can have comprehensive coverage or portability but not both. Until the promised European version of the Wildguides book appears Jiguet & Audevard look set to be the definitive photoguide on European birds (although not of North Africa or the Middle East!). Recommended (with some reservations).
Birds of Spain - Eduardo de Juana & Juan M Varela (Translated Ernest Garcia)Pub: Lynx Feb. 2017 567 species (inc. 173 accidentals covered in less detail)300+ maps Almost 1,000 illustrations ISBN 13: 978-84-16728-02-220 x 12 cm 258 pp 25€
Despite my atrocious Spanish, I've been recommending “Aves de Espaňa” by Eduardo de Juana and Juan M Varela ever since I saw a copy and mistook the latter's artwork as some of Lars Jonsson's early work. They have the same fluid style and an uncanny knack of breathing life into their images. I couldn't understand much of the text but the maps, like the illustrations, were multilingual. After a little perseverance, I found that even I could even decipher the text sufficiently well to grasp the essential details of population and passage periods if not identification details. I've been hoping for an English version for years and here it is! This is a version of the recently published Spanish 3rd edition. Translators rarely receive the praise that they deserve but this volume was in the safe hands of Ernest Garcia, the well-known expert on Iberia's birds, who has done a first rate job. (Note that in this review I have compared this editions largely with the original 2000 edition, not the 2nd edition).
As the introduction tells us (and we hopeless Anglophones can now understand) the aim was to produce a book small enough to be “practical for use in the field” and yet of “impressive quality, content and conservation potential”. It's testament to how far their aims have been achieved that over 40,000 copies of the original Spanish book have been sold and the guide has gone through several editions. The main section describes and illustrates just under 400 species in 208 pages whilst 173 vagrants (57 of which are illustrated) are listed (but not described) in an appendix. It follows the now conventional 'text-opposite-plates' layout. Each double page spread covers 3-4 species (occasionally 5) and for relevant species includes a refreshingly large distribution map. Note that it covers peninsular Spain, the Balearics and, less obviously, the Canaries.
As noted above the illustrations are of a very high quality. In this (like the third Spanish edition) new illustrations have been provided for a number of species (inc. male Capercaillie, juv Night Heron, winter Kentish Plover, Stonecurlew, Pectoral Sandpiper, Common Buttonquail, Barn, Little, Short-eared and Eagle Owls, Bee-eater, Roller, Great-reed Warbler, Chiffchaff, Penduline Tit, Dipper, Blackbird, Blue Rockthrush and Snowfinch). There are also new illustrations for Cory's and Scopoli's Shearwaters (the latter newly included and treated as a full species). I find the illustrations aesthetically very pleasing with only the painting of Marsh Tit falling below par. One of my few reservations concerns the illustration of spring male Pied Flycatcher which shows a bird with a large white patch at the base of the primaries (not labelled as such but typical of the local race iberiae) but extensive white outer tail feathers more resembling the nominate form hypoleuca of northern Europe. A comparison I carried out by looking at twenty 'core species' found an average of 3.3 illustrations per species in this guide which was less than half of those found showing the same species in the popular Collins Guide (8). As a result, although there are good comparison plates for eagles, skuas and gulls, the book still has fewer illustrations of females, juveniles, birds in flight, etc. than many may be used to (for example only breeding Cattle Egret with warm buff plumes is illustrated inviting confusion, unless the text is consulted, between Little Egret and Cattle Egret when in winter plumage). However, to a large degree, this is compensated by the fact that the illustrations are significantly larger and the plates much less cluttered. This makes it particularly helpful for tyro birdwatchers since it's less confusing.
Several rare, introduced or essentially North African species have been 'promoted' from the appendix in the main text (inc. Bald Ibis, Western Reef Heron, Egyptian Goose, Mandarin, Lesser Flamingo, Long-legged Buzzard and Red-billed Leiothrix). Perhaps surprisingly neither Ruppell's Vulture nor Pallid Harrier, both increasingly reported, have been fully covered. Interestingly, Ruddy Duck has been banished altogether and the illustration of Barbary Falcon (now treated as a subspecies of Peregrine has gone AWOL). The inclusion of so many introduced species - Mandarin, Egyptian Goose, Red-billed Leiothrix, Ring-necked Parakeet, Monk Parakeet, Common Waxbill & Red Avadavat – is very welcome. However, the absence of species (e.g. Black-headed Weaver, Yellow-crowned Bishop and several parakeet species) with growing populations in Spain, is a little surprising.
Now that I can read it without constant recourse to a dictionary and much head scratching, the excellence of the text is clear. The descriptive notes are clear and concise (although the judicious use of 'bold' for critical points would have made them still better). The key identification pointers are given so that, given a good view, all but the most fiendishly difficult identification problems should be resolvable. The advantage of having a skilled birdwatcher as the translator is shown by the modification of the transcriptions of many calls and songs for an Anglophone, rather than Hispanophone, readership. Details of status and population have been taken from two recent Spanish bird atlases. These too have been used to create the excellent four colour maps (resident = green, breeding = yellow, common in winter = dark blue and scarce in winter = pale blue). Usefully the maps show the distribution of birds in Portugal and adjacent parts of France and North Africa too. Naturally, the maps are far larger, more accurate and more detailed than maps in field guides which cover a much larger area. My only caveat is that indicating provincial boundaries would have made it easier to understand where the birds are found. Conservation status is also given.
The most contentious, change has been to order the birds according to the most recent taxonomy which is based on DNA research. As a result of this, many original illustrations have been shifted round and often re-sized. Frequently they're now a little smaller, but this has the advantage of making some plates feel less cluttered. If covering wildfowl second, not first, after gamebirds were the only change then the novel arrangement wouldn't be too bad. Unfortunately, in my view many changes actively militate against the book's functionality as a field guide. Although now known to be scientifically inaccurate, the old taxonomy was based, in part, on physical differences so that similar species tended to be grouped together. DNA takes no account of this so Grebes are now 20 pages adrift from Divers. Nightjars, swifts and cuckoos now find a home just after flamingos but before crakes. Bizarrely, Hoopoes, Bee-eaters, Roller, Kingfisher and woodpeckers intrude themselves between the larger birds of prey and falcons. Odder still, Hippolais and “wetland warblers” are divided from the 'bush' and 'leaf' warblers by swallows and martins. Meanwhile, Long-tailed Tit is now hiding amongst the warblers! For anyone used to the traditional species order, this is extremely, and unnecessarily, confusing. The obvious remedy is to have a quick look in the index but this is where the guide really falls down badly since it has what is probably the worst index I've ever seen in a bird book. Not sure where to find a Golden Oriole in the new taxonomic order? Well, you won't find it under “O” for oriole as you might expect nor even under “G” for golden which is the other obvious option. No, it's under “E” for “Eurasian”! Hence no bird groups (such as gulls, terns, warblers, etc.) are indexed together and species are dotted across the index depending on whether they're 'Common', 'European', 'Eurasian' etc. Together with the unfamiliar order, this makes the book far harder to use than it ought to be. It's high time bird guides abandoned a rigorous 'scientific order' as it no longer reflects our intuitive grasp of bird groups. An Anglo-American team has led the way in using a 'field friendly' order (see https://www.aba.org/birding/v41n6p44.pdf) and the widely acclaimed Wildguides 'Britain's Birds' in the UK has followed suit (although this book also lists birds in taxonomic order in an appendix). My penultimate observation is one of surprise that Lynx didn't incorporate status information from their “Aves de Portugal” (which uses exactly the same illustrations) to make a single volume English language “Birds of Iberia” which surely would have been more economic and enjoyed larger potential sales.
I always used to recommended that British visitors to Spain should buy a copy of the “Aves de Espaňa” even if their Spanish was, like mine, very limited so, despite my minor caveats, I have no hesitation in recommending this English language version. It is a convenient and reasonably priced source of information, in English, that can only be found in a far more expensive reference book - “The Birds of the Iberian Peninsula” (also by Eduardo de Juana and the translator here Ernest Garcia). Enthusiasts, of course, will want both one for the bookshelf and one for the field. Although aimed at a novice or 'intermediate' birdwatcher, this is a superb little guide crammed with useful information which any Anglophone visitor to or resident in Spain would be foolish not to have with them. Very highly recommended
Well, if you can't plug your book on your own website where can you do so? I finally got a copy of the guide which I wrote with Dirk Hilbers late last week. As usual the Crossbill team have done a great job putting the book together and the final result looks very handsome indeed. Dutch naturalist Dirk Hilbers deserves most credit as he wrote most of the introduction, the text on plants and insects so my major contribution was to write up the text on the birdlife, history, about half the routes and savage the early "Dutch-English" drafts with my usual ferocity. I even contributed a couple photos (no prizes for guessing one was of Lesser Kestrel snapped from our terrace in Alcala de los Gazules). I also contributed one of the routes, some of the text and roughed up the text in the sister volume, imaginatively called the "Crossbill Guide to Eastern Andalucia" (issuu.com/crossbillguidesfoundation/docs/cg23_eastern_andalucia_issue).
NOTE: the Crossbill Guides are NOT simple birdwatching site guides being so much moring have a much wider remit dealing with the history (particulatly as it applies to landscapes), geology, ecology and general wildlife of the region. However, they will direct you to key birding sites, special species and inform you about what to expect.
The series seems to be a little specialist for most high street bookshops to stock asa matter of course (although you may be lucky!) but they should be able to get a copy for you. To avoid confusion with other books in the series it may be useful to quote the ISBN - 978-94-91648-09-0. If you're in the UK I'd recommend ordering the book from Wildsounds (http://www.wildsounds.com/menu/main.shtml) although be warned that as I write they've sold out and are currently waiting more stock - it proved to be more popular than they assumed. You can order directly from the Crossbill Guides website (crossbillguides.nl/bookstore/western-andalucia) which is more convenient if you're in the Netherlands (although they can post them to the UK). If you're in Spain then copies should be available from www.weboryx.com/
To see a preview of the guide online go to issuu.com/crossbillguidesfoundation/docs/cg22_western_andalucia-issue or check the photo below.
Largely thanks to being a warmer 'refugia' during the ice ages, Iberia is unique in Europe for being the home of several endemic or near-endemic birds most notably Azure-winged Magpie, Iberian Green Woodpecker and Spanish Imperial Eagle (although the latter was once found more widely). If one extends the list to include nearby North Africa then the list becomes still longer: Red-necked Nightjar, Spanish Yellow Wagtail, Black Wheatear, Thekla Lark and Western Olivaceous Warbler. Thanks to developments in DNA based taxonomy another species, Iberian Chiffchaff, has now been added to that list.
Iberian Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus ibericus) belongs to a group of similar tree haunting small and largely nondescript birds that we British once called 'willow-wrens'. Whilst we've lost any colloquial name for these birds, the Spanish have retained theirs and call them all, charmingly I think, “mosquiteros” (= mosquito eaters). In many ways the most interesting of these is Mosquitero Ibérico or Iberian Chiffchaff. Given that British ornithologists regularly explored Gibraltar's hinterland from at least the 1860s onwards, despite the similarity in plumage, it seems surprising that nobody seems to have reported 'unusual' chiffchaffs in the area (esp. in the Alcornocales where they are fairly common) as the song is quite distinct. The answer seems to be that they were widely mistaken for Willow Warblers. Even the great pioneer Irby, author of the seminal 'Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar' (1875, enlarged edition 1895), appears to have been fooled as in his book he wrongly notes of Willow Warblers that in “the vicinity of Gibraltar they are to be found throughout the year in the Cork-wood, where they breed” and most subsequent authors appear to have followed his lead. Since Willow Warblers are, in fact, non-breeding passage migrants to the area, it seems that in the days before widely available recordings of bird song it was all too easy to mistake Iberian Chiffchaff's more musical cadences for a variant of this species rather than Chiffchaff.
The realisation that these birds were, in fact, chiffchaffs with distinctive song came surprisingly late in 1913. In that year, Captain Hubert Lynes studied them near Gibraltar (see - 'The Ibis' Vol II 1914 – http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/100092#page/370/mode/1up) and, like those before him, Lynes initially mistook the Iberian Chiffchaff's tripartite song as a local dialect, not of Chiffchaff but Willow Warbler. However, unlike others, he carefully investigated the situation. On finding a nest and collecting a specimen he realised he'd made an error and that the birds were a kind of chiffchaff. It's worth quoting Lynes' perceptive note more fully: “The only other breeding Phylloscopus (so far as we could find), was by its song, I think anyone would have agreed, a Willow-Warbler; singing males of this species shared the cork-oak glades in about equal proportion as Bonelli's. For a Willow-Warbler, true, the song was unmelodious and disjointed (“tin-potty”, if one may use such an expression), the first two notes jerked out, so that for a moment they might have been put down to an eccentric Chiffchaff, had they not invariably been followed by the four or five notes in descending scale characteristic of the Willow Warbler – in short, if it was a poor Willow-Warbler's song, it was an impossible Chiffchaff's”. He went on to relate how found a nest and eggs (which more resembled that of a Chiffchaff than a Willow Warbler) and shot the female. On examining the latter and a further six specimens he collected, he found that “with no little surprise” it possessed “all the external characters, dimensions, wing formula, emargination, etc of the typical Chiffchaff” and, although he noted the plumage was largely the same as British birds he observed that “the sulphur yellow axillaries may be a trifle brighter.” Lynes went on to note that, unlike the plumage, “the peculiarity of the song, which is constant, must have some significance” and then discussed whether the birds were resident in the area (as widely assumed) or were, in fact, migrants. It's perhaps unfortunate that Lynes seems to have collected his birds in early June when they would have been at their most worn and least likely to show their greener and yellower plumage. Had his birds shown the recognised traits of a 'good' ibericus then perhaps greater notice would have been taken of his observations. Even so, it's a little surprising that, although extensive reference was made to the Canarian race of Chiffchaff neither, he nor H F Witherby (whom he consulted) made any reference to the Iberian race of chiffchaff described over 40 years earlier. (Rear-Admiral Lynes, as he became, enjoyed a distinguished naval career retiring in 1919 after which he led several ornithological expeditions in Africa on whose birds he was an authority. Not daunted by a challenge, he wrote an important review of Cisticolas, the ultimate LBJs, for the journal “Ibis” and Lyne's Cisticola Cisticola distincta is one of over a dozen bird species and subspecies named in his honour).
As noted above, even those with access to older books specifically touching upon the birds of Spain will find that neither “Iberian Chiffchaff” nor the odd song of the form gets a mention at all. At one level the continuing omission of this form in the popular literature is not surprising since, even today, Iberian birds are regarded as doubtfully distinguishable on plumage grounds alone but at another level it's a surprise that the distinctive song and the fact that birds in much of Iberia belonged a distinct race went unmentioned for so long. That the popular ornithological literature virtually ignored these interesting birds until relatively recently is still more od a surprise as bred in such an accessible and ornithologically well-known area. Nobody seems to have followed up or to have shown overmuch interest in Captain Lynes' work (with the evident exception of Claude Ticehurst about whom see below). Although both Roger Tory Peterson and Guy Mountfort (illustrator and author respectively of the first European bird field guide) were part of the famous team that explored the Coto Donana neither their field guide nor the latter's book about the expeditions, “Portrait of a Wilderness” (1958), mention that the local chiffchaffs had a unique song. Yet a fellow member of their team (and subsequent reviser of their guide) I. J. Ferguson-Lees, later demonstrated that he clearly knew the bird's distinctive song. Not surprisingly when a bird singing like ibericus was found in London in 1972 the finder, despite being a highly regarded ornithologist, had never even heard of the distinctively different Iberian form and the bird's identity was resolved, not from any printed reference, but on playing a recording of the bird to I. J. Ferguson-Lees. Even so, the record was only accepted almost 30 years later (see - https://britishbirds.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/article_files/V93/V93_N07/V93_N07_P329_332_A005.pdf ).
The level of confusion regarding ibericus in the textbooks and particularly the lack of illustrations is understandable given that even the latest “Collins Bird Guide” recognises that “many are impossible to identify in the field on plumage characters”. This confusion also extended to what the bird should be called scientifically. Although for simplicity and clarity I have called it ibericus, until recently most (but not all) books called it brehmii. Changing a bird's scientific name more than a hundred years after its apparent discovery is not unknown but it remains somewhat unusual. The compelling reasons for the change is explained when one looks a little deeper into the history of Iberian Chiffchaff. In 1871, Eugen Ferdinand von Homeyer (1809–1889) first described what was later assumed to be this form from specimens collected in Iberia in April which he named Phyllopneuste brehmii after the German scientist Alfred Brehm (1829-1884). The family name was later changed to “Phylloscopus” and, given their very close similarity, recognised as being only a subspecies of Chiffchaff. Hence it the birds became known as Phylloscopus colybita brehmii. Just how 'similar' to Common Chiffchaff these specimens were was only fully recognised in 2001 when a scientific paper (see - http://biostor.org/reference/111838) revealed that the birds he described were actually Common Chiffchaffs! As a result, the old name brehmii had to be dropped. This meant that the first accurate formal description of the different taxon found in Iberia was made much later in 1937 by C B Ticehurst in his A Systematic review of the genus Phylloscopus who had called them ibericus. Unlike Von Homeyer, Ticehurst described his birds as being greener above and more yellow below so even without reference to the specimens it is clear that his birds were what we now call ibericus.
Unfortunately, this new insight into chiffchaff speciation came a little late for the 'Atlas de las Aves Reproductoras de Espaňa' (2004) which was based on survey work carried out 1998 – 2002. Understandably, the failed to adequately distinguish between the two species which resulted in an overestimate of the Iberian's range (see map). Hence, at first, it was wrongly thought that pretty much all of the birds breeding in Spain and Portugal, apart from the central and eastern Pyrenees, were Iberian Chiffchaffs.
However, the situation now seems rather more complex with De Juana & Garcia ("The Birds of the Iberian Peninsula") showing Common Chiffchaff as a thinly spread breeding species across much of the northern Meseta south of the Cantabrians with a recently discovered outpost in the Sierra Nevada. Leaving aside the North African population, it now seems that Phylloscopus ibericus is found in four main areas; western Portugal, the Sierra Morena (where it's thinly scattered), the mountains of Cadiz/Malaga and the north-west (i.e. Cantabrian massif of north-west Spain and the western Pyrenees plus just over the border into south-west France). The latter population is sometimes regarded as a race, biscayensis, based on marginal differences but this is a matter of dispute. In addition, the Spanish atlas shows isolated breeding records of 'chiffchaffs' dotted across the peninsula; presumably those towards the north-east are more likely to be 'Common' and those to the west ibericus (although given the recent breeding record of the latter from Wales anything seems possible!). Where the two species meet a small number of “mixed singers”, often regarded as hybrids, may be found. A new Spanish atlas is currently in progress so it will be interesting to discover what it tells us about this previously overlook species.
The relatively recent interest in Iberian Chiffchaff owes much to the rise of DNA-based taxonomy. In the late 1990s, research suggested that the difference in the DNA of some races of Chiffchaff was as great as that between widely recognised 'full' species. This, together with differences in vocalisations, suggested that Iberian Chiffchaffs were in fact 'cryptic' species sufficiently different to be regarded as 'full' species too. Typically, birdwatchers take a lot more interest in birds they can legitimately tick! Exactly how these birds differ (if at all!) from Common Chiffchaff in plumage and structure I shall return to in a later post but the fact is that, as Irby et al discovered, they remain similar enough to be very easily confused. Vocalisations and phenology, rather than plumage, are often the best guide.
About me ...
Hi I'm John Cantelo. I've been birding seriously since the 1960s when I met up with some like minded folks at Secondary School. I have lived in Kent , where I taught History and Sociology, since the late 1970s. In that time I've served on the committees of both my local RSPB group and the county ornithological society (KOS). I have also worked as a part-time field teacher for the RSPB at Dungeness. Having retired now spend as much time as in Alcala de los Gazules in SW Spain. When I'm not birding I edit books for the Crossbill Guides series.